At the end of the 4th millennium BC the Oman peninsula was theatre of a great transformation: the ‘Oasis revolution’. From this period onwards a new farming system was introduced, with the establishment of oasis settlements along the foothills of the al-Hajar mountains.
Many technological progresses are testified: the introduction of metalworking and pottery manufacture, and a sophisticated hydraulic system. These changes, together with the ability of the inhabitants of Oman to preserve food, determined a strong increase in the population. These transformations were probably stimulated by the commercial contacts with the Mesopotamian and Indus Valley civilizations.
Salut hydraulic system
An impressive hydraulic system has been discovered at the Bronze Age Tower near Salut, which comprised ditches, channels and wells, bearing witness to the strong efforts that already in the Bronze Age the local inhabitants made to bring fertility to their lands, challenging the climate that was progressively drying up.
The ancient inhabitants were thus able to grow a combination of crop fields and palm groves, likely making the area look pretty - much similar to modern oases - immersed in a thriving vegetation.
Other contemporary oasis were aligned along the foot of the al-Hajjar mountain range, forming the basis of Oman economy and providing surplus goods that could be exchanged with coastal communities.